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Mau Mau Secondary navigation VideoSecret History: Mau Mau (1999)
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It wasn't just isolated individual officers. The whole purpose was to break the Mau Mau. The UK says the claim is not valid because of the amount of time since the abuses were alleged to have happened, and that any liability rested with the Kenyan authorities after independence in Prof Anderson explains: "There was lots of suffering on the other side too.
This was a dirty war. It became a civil war - though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today. One example was the Mau Mau raid on the "loyalist" village of Lari, where the majority of the men were away fighting with the British Home Guard.
The rebels killed more than 70, mostly women and children. Tim Simmonds, who joined the Kenyan police reserve as a tracker shortly after settling in Kenya in , says the Mau Mau fighters "went on the rampage", slaughtering thousands of people, leaving him so frightened he slept under his bed for a year.
Kenya became independent seven years after the collapse of the uprising. Many argue that the Mau Mau uprising helped catalyze decolonization as it showed that colonial control could only be maintained through the use of extreme force.
The moral and financial cost of colonization was a growing issue with British voters, and the Mau Mau revolt brought those issues to a head.
However, the fighting between Kikuyu communities made their legacy contentious within Kenya. The colonial legislation outlawing the Mau Mau defined them as terrorists, a designation that remained in place until , when the Kenyan government revoked the law.
The government has since established monuments celebrating Mau Mau rebels as national heroes. Share Flipboard Email. Alistair Boddy-Evans.
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Instead, they were prepared to resort to force to achieve their aims and in the years preceding the uprising they carried out a number of small-scale attacks and sabotage on European property.
The movement that emerged became known as the Mau Mau — the origin of this term is unknown, as it is an ambiguous name to which many have attached different meanings.
Despite awareness of the growth of the movement, the government and settler communities made no concessions aside from a few token measures, and instead continued existing policies of repression and even proposed new legislation to reduce the rights of the indigenous people even further.
This inflexibility forced the Mau Mau into a period of armed resistance. The lack of recognition of the threat posed by the squatter movement demonstrated how the Europeans did not consider Kenyan nationalists to be capable of organising significant opposition to the colonial regime.
Those initially targeted by the Mau Mau were Kikuyu who collaborated with the Europeans. In a wave of violence was directed at police witnesses who provided testimony against Africans, particularly in cases related to the Mau Mau.
Prominent collaborators were assassinated and a small number of white settlers were also attacked. Police responded by initiating a mass campaign of arrests, arresting Kikuyu suspected of Mau Mau involvement and taking others into preventative detention, in an attempt to neutralise the support base of the Mau Mau.
However, this indiscriminate repression had the opposite effect to what was intended and drove many more indigenous Kenyans to support the movement.
By mid around ninety percent of Kikuyu adults had taken the Mau Mau oath. In October , Senior Chief Waruhiu, a prominent collaborator and the harshest critic of the Mau Mau among the Kikuyu chiefs, was assassinated near Nairobi.
His death prompted celebration amongst Mau Mau supporters and consternation in government. The administration finally realised that the Mau Mau posed a serious threat to colonial rule in Kenya and the decision was taken to actively challenge and engage the rebels.
The Declaration of Emergency was accompanied by Operation Jock Scott, a coordinated police operation that arrested Kikuyu who were considered by the government to be the leaders of the Mau Mau movement.
Mau Mau supporters responded by assassinating another senior Kikuyu chief and several white settlers. Thousands of Mau Mau left their homes and set up camp in the forests of the Aberdares and Mt.
Kenya, creating a base of resistance to the government. Hostilities were relatively subdued for the remainder of , but the following year began with a series of violent killings of European farmers and loyalist Africans.
British intelligence on the Mau Mau also improved with the introduction of pseudo-gangs, led by Kikuyu-speaking Europeans disguised as Africans, who infiltrated the forest gangs.
Although the declared state of emergency was to continue until , British military operations effectively ceased in November By this point thousands of Mau Mau members had been detained and they had suffered over 10, casualties.